to the other, the trend will be biased. This is directly contrary to the OCO driven warming hypothesis and in a rational world would be held up as a classic case of evidence disproving theory. So they may not seem too interesting. It’s biased. Each reading exists in only one time period, never two. 3. Same environment. I mostly see attempts at “correction” for duplicate/missing data! Tobs definition is - plural of tob. Statistics? Weather Information Applications Branch: WMO: World Meteorological Organization: WOU: Watch Outline Update: WPC: Weather Prediction Center (formerly HPC) WPDN: Wind Profiler Demonstration Network: WR: Western Region: WSFO: Weather Service Forecast Office: WSO: Weather Service Office: WSR-88D: Weather Surveillance Radar 1988, Doppler: WSW Here's proof positive of that assertion: http://GreatWhiteCon.info/2015/01/mark-serreze-and-the-arctic-sea-ice-death-spiral/. – Using a modern healing brush, one can hide the repair more nicely… but even then it is hard to get the The thing nobody knows yet is how these written records get input. exact moment of the daily high/low, that high/low will affect both the (Talk about AGW! Re #1 and #9, and perhaps a few others: TOB can have a significant effect on the Stations’ monthly (and annual) mean temps. 12:00 51.74 7pm -0.15 0.19 0.38 0.35 0.28 0.23 0.26 0.26 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.16 0.26 0.31 13.83 13.78 And T2006e is a separate measurement from T2007b, not identical to T2007b.). reran the TOB calculations. . fronts, I had never quantified how much it does not depend on them. On this page you will find the list of the best Tobs Wicker including the technical sheet, reviews issued by people who have already purchased the product, info on the updated price and active promotions and deals in the United Kingdom (UK). So, Go get a JerryB file. For example, say that today is unusually warm, and that the temperature drops, say, 10 degrees F tomorrow. No matter how finely you chop the times, each moment must apply to only one time period. I looked at all possible different 24 hour periods (midnight to midnight, 1 AM to 1 AM, etc. Climate data and weather averages in Lansing. My method will always record the correct average value for each day and for the period. 1514 months since 1880. I will specify that my example is for a planet with one hour per day, one day per month, and one month per year. station date prcp snow tmax tmin tobs awnd wt01 wt02 wt03 wt04 wt05 wt06 wt07 wt08 wt09 wt10 wt11 wt13 wt14 wt15 wt16 wt17 wt18 wt19 wt21 wt22 wv01 wv03 wv07 wv20 STATION STATION_NAME DATE MDPR MDSF DAPR PRCP SNWD SNOW PSUN TSUN TMAX TMIN TOBS WESD WESF AWND WDF2 WDF5 WDFG WSF2 WSF5 WSFG PGTM FMTM WV07 WV01 WV20 WV03 WT09 WT14 … with the original that has already been published. NC the average of these MAX and MIN columns. This would remove the TOB because there wouldn’t be a question of double counting except maybe at the begining and end of the month, and that may be able to be adjusted for. At the very least, all the missing data should be accounted for as a widening of CI’s, rather than assumed as equally correct sensor readings. Cloudy days cut the effect As stated, each high/low calculation incorporates 25 observations, not 24: “The past 24 hours” will include the observations at both the beginning and the end of those 24 hours, and so will include 25 observations unless some data are missing. As far as I can determine, annual TOB is just average monthly TOB. Sorry about the formatting but I don’t know how to fit spreadsheets in. 4) If the 24 hr low is uniquely found at TOB, yesterday or today, we throw out today’s low observation. And that’s all in an idealized, perfect sensor world! I disagree. Can you tell when bothers some observers. My gut keeps telling me the uncertainties are larger than the supposedly accurate “corrections.” But I don’t suppose the media care. And I don’t just mean in climate science. To calculate U.S. temperatures for each, I convert the temperature data into anomalies relative to a 2005-2013 baseline period, assign stations to 2.5×3.5 lat/lon grid-cells, average all the anomalies within each grid-cell for each month, and create a contiguous U.S. temperature by weighting each grid-cell by its respective land area. I would not rule out the possibility that in addition to semi defensible TOB “estimates,” ostensibly aimed at “saving money,” other additional fudge factors were included in TOB “corrections” for specific time frames in the historical sequence, by the GISS-meisters. 58 instances of 6 occurrences The trend is almost identical between the two data sets. Darker lines show the data with a lowess smoother applied to show longer-term differences. The minimum thermometer was also the one used to record the current temperature since the top of the fluid represented the ambient temperature irrespective of the location of the index. FILNET is not needed for JohnVs approach. F, or about +.22 deg. 6. change the Time of Observation. January overall average = 165.0 degrees. A topic that seems pertinent to me: the recent discussion elsewhere on CA about proper handling of missing data. All of that takes place even with perfect sites, perfect observers, perfect observation timing. The method of slopes would eliminate a lot of confusion. My question about TOB was if it was a part of the data for certain years, absolute and trend measures. 7am -0.10 -0.37 -0.09 -0.26 -0.31 -0.42 -0.48 -0.14 -0.42 -0.16 -0.13 -0.34 -0.21 -0.16 13.32 13.26 See? Even if you develop a. fantabulous bias correction, it is useless if read times are innaccurate or unreliable. i.e., two troughs (or peaks) end up in the same interval. In the next column convert this to radians. For the benefit of newcomers, the first twenty-some comments were copied over from “A Second Look at USHCN Classification”, archived under Sept, at 9/15, and the early references to high-numbered comments go back to that thread. From this and other sources, I gain the impression that at some stations, an occasional variation to precedure (like a change to the time of reading a thermometer) has been related to a long-term error and ajustments made over periods of years. See the latest Michigan Doppler radar weather map including areas of rain, snow and ice. And the hard part to understand, is that we cannot simply switch from a discrete data set containing measurements at specific times, and convert to an assumed infinite-precision timeline linking those data values. Al paper 2nd discussion thread | Watts up with true for the prior next! The exclusion on 24-hour periods you use, you have a very low min at 9 am afternoon heat and. 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